How Do Computers Communicate With Each Other

Think in a style of human communication. People utilize language to communicate with one another. This conversation can form a network that connects people. Creating a network means that we are all connected by a shared media. It may be an idea, comparable interests, or the work, but the connection can only be a cable for computers.

You send packets with information to the computers if you want to communicate via the Internet with other computers, but how do the computers know which packages are meant for them and not? Would you like to discover How Do Computers Communicate With Each Other? 

When you initially send a packet on the Internet, it hits your local switch/router first. Then a series of interchanges/routers pass through cables below the sea, and the remote machine reaches its destination. Each packet comprises the data or part of the data to be conveyed, ranging from binary images to plain-text commands.

What Is Communication Between Computers?

Before exploring How Do Computers Communicate With Each Other? You need to know about computer communication. Computer Communications explains a procedure by which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information. Some communications include cables and wires; others are transmitted wirelessly by air.

It would help if you had the following for successful communications: A sending device that initiates a data, instructions, or information transmission instruction.

A communications device that links the channel to a receiver. A receiving device that accepts data, instructions, or information transmission. All types of computers and mobile devices are used in a communication system for sending and receiving devices. 

It applies to mainframe computers, servers, desktops, laptops, tablets, smartphones, mobile media, and GPS receivers. One kind of communication device, such as a computer, which connects a channel with a sending or receiving device, is a modem.

How Do Computers Communicate With Each Other?

Computers Interact Over Your Network

  • We use the web daily. It means that we are all connected to the same network. The Internet is a global network that connects everyone globally and may communicate from all locations at all times, as they are part of the same network. A network is a group of links.
  • It can also be a smaller group of networks. A network of computers employs two or more computers connected using network media.
  • Users within the same network may use the same hardware or software or programs and transfer various data, such as text, video, voice, etc. For example, hardware is used to connect wire cables, optical fibers, or wireless communications.
  • There are two different sorts of networks. These categories are networks of local areas and broad networks. 
  • The critical difference is the range of network connectivity. Let’s first offer you a short account of what a local network is.
How Do Computers Communicate With Each Other
  • With its name, you may understand that a narrower range of computers can be connected by the LAN (local area network) because it is locally based. You can believe that the local network is focused on linking people with something in common, such as computers in a school class for communicating with pupils, staff, or company computing. 
  • The LAN can only be accessed and utilized by a secure network. So the LAN now allows users to use their IP address, as described below. Let’s explain the extensive network now. 
  • The vast area network can construct a more extensive network than the LAN with increasing users. It is the WAN connecting networks from larger geographical areas. 
  • Let’s imagine the corporation has spread its operations into other nations or towns and still wishes to interact. WAN is used for transmitting data between extended distant areas or between several networks connected to a more extensive network.
  • The speed and complexity of a WAN can be slower than LAN; however, it relies on its configuration.

How Does the Network Identify the Recipient’s Computer?

We’ve formed a LAN now. We can join all computers within the same network with a standard wire called Ethernet. Computer A (really there is a user) wishes to send messages to computer B because they share the same medium. This message travels within the cable and enters every computer of the network.

How Does the Network Recognise the Message Recipient?

The communication is destined for the end, a recipient looking forward to reading the message and presumably wants to share information again. Each device possesses a different MAC address for the router to solve this problem. This address ensures that the computer’s physical address is individual.

Each standalone computer has a dedicated ISP address. The IP address (Internet Protocol) is unique to every networked computer and describes it so that you may recognize the computer. 

The IP address is separated by periods by four 8 bit numbers like, and each set is between 0 and 255. The Internet Protocol enables the sending of data across the same network. The data is transmitted via network packets. 

Each computer has its static IP and public IP. Your machine has a private IP for it. The ISP (Internet Service Provider) assigns your device an address. The IP will save in the router. 

The router contains a routing table that collects any private IP addresses linked to this network. In each network you connect, for instance, if you connect to a public network like Starbucks, the IP will vary and be provided by the provider that Starbucks works with. The router allows a device to communicate with a different IP, the public IP, to a worldwide network (the Internet).

The public IP is defined by the ISP from a routing pool that allocates addresses on each network. Public addresses may be dynamic or static, but we won’t keep to that right now. I want you to know that your computer connects to a network and can be identified by the network from its IP address. Your computer can communicate with other computers linked to an Ethernet or a switch on the same network.

The Ethernet wire is a standard media for every network machine. To split the wired network, you can utilize the switch. Multiple cables are connected to the data transmission switch. Thus, if computer A wishes to send information to computer B switch, it does not signal all connected computers. The controller stores the MAC addresses and transmits the message where required. The switch helps to avoid collisions in the network.

How Data Is Transferred From Layer to Layer?

The main elements of data transfer from one layer to another are covered without the technical specifics to comprehend the basics. If the Ethernet is the medium, the data now transfers in the form of a signal. 

Data communication involves transmitting packets from hop to hop to the destination. It is known as hop networking. Data starts your journey from the physical cable layer, the medium of biological transmission.

 Data is a signal. Data is a signal. These signals are interpreted in the first layer in the form of 0 and 1. It is time to shift to the second layer named the layer Data Link. It is responsible for framing the message in various chunks and finding the network path the data follows. Gather the Mac addresses of the nodes part of the same network and determine how the frames must go from hop to hop (the hop networking).

Next, we switch to the IP protocol network layer, which works. This layer covers IP addresses, the sender, and the target destination from end-to-end hosts. Then the layer Transport is based on the IP protocol and constructs a packet header that contains the MAC and the IP previously identified.

Transport layer and protocol TCP/IP

The transport layer of the OSI model is the fourth layer. The transport layer processes data quantity, pace, and destination. This layer must also work following a protocol. The TCP is used in this layer (Transmission Control Protocol). 

This protocol, called the TCP/IP protocol, is based on the Network Layer IP Protocol. The fourth level ensures that data is free of errors and is supplied without loss or duplication in a sequence. 

Provides reliability and is in charge of complete data transmission control before a session is set up in the following tier. The transport layer also becomes r for the segmentation of the packet. Breaks enormous amounts of data into packets and guarantees the integrity of the data. 

The primary TCP operations include packet segmentation, message recognition, traffic control, and multiplexing sessions. The node path, the hops between MACs and IP addresses are, as previously said, known from the preceding layers. 

How Do Computers Communicate With Each Other

The TCP now includes information in the headers of each packet that provides for the source and destination port, the sequence numbers, the account number, and the checksum field. The ACK number contains the value of the next packet the recipient waits for. TCP offers reliability in this way. For every error-free data, TCP enables retransmission and continuous sending of error-free packets.

To communicate information, a connection has to be created between the nodes. TCP is connected and speaks in two ways. The TCP connection is built via a three-way handshake. Like a literal handshake between your client and your server to meet and exchange data packets.

Now we move to the sitting layer. It is responsible for opening, maintaining, and terminating the communication session between nodes. Authentication techniques are also available to check users (i.e., password validation). The data now moves on the tier of the presentation. The main functions of compression and encryption are data decoding. 

Final step

The application layer is the OSI model’s highest level. The coating is nearest to the end-user and supports the most popular client-server protocols, such as HTTP. It also supports DNS, FTP, HTTPS, SMTP, and others. Allows you to find resources such as the website pages (HTML, images, stylesheets). It is a layer of abstraction. Provides access and permits users to interact with software applications. File and email transfers, domain name services, remote server login are final layer functions.

FAQs – How Do Computer Communicates With Each Other?

  1. What Type of Communication Happens in Computer?

    Data is exchanged between devices in digital communication. This data communication (datacom), for example, by a telephone line, fiber optic cord, or wireless signal, is carried out via a communication medium.

  2. Why Is Computer Communication Important?

    Computers are essential to communication and are at the core of IT. In the early 90s, household Internet usage developed, leading to widespread use of emails, websites, blogs, social networking, video chat, and Voice-Over-Internet Protocol.

  3. What Does a Computer Communicate With One Another?

    Your computer can connect to other computers in the network connected to an Ethernet or switch to the same network. For each computer on the web, the Ethernet wire is a shared medium. To split the wired network, you can utilize a switch.

  4. Can Two Computers Be Connected With a USB Cable?

    A specific USB bridge cable has to be purchased or bought (it can also be called a USB data transfer cable or USB networking cable). The correct cable has a central electronic circuit and male USB connectors on both sides.


This article covers the fundamentals of computer communications. Now you know How Do Computers Communicate With Each Other? Every time you hit the Send option, the data (signal) becomes 01010101, which moves through different layers according to the OSI model. 

And now you know the functions of every layer too! Cool, right? Your computer can communicate with other computers linked to an Ethernet or switch to the same network within the network. 

For each computer in the network, the Ethernet wire is a shared medium. You can use a switch to split the wired network. Now you know how data moves from the wire as a signal to another computer in a readable form passing by different layers and protocols.